Jewelers Golssary

The following is an archive of Jewelers Terms we use. We want to help educate you so you understand your purchase more completely.

Well Cut

Well-cut proportions ensure the maximum compromise between fire and brilliance. When light enters a properly cut diamond, it is reflected from facet to facet, and then back up through the top, exhibiting maximum brilliance, fire and sparkle.

Weight Ratio

A description of a diamond’s overall weight in relation to its diameter.

Trillion Shape

Is a triangular-shaped diamond with 50 facets. Trillions are commonly used as side-stones.

Tension Setting

A diamond is held in place by the pressure of the band’s metal, which is designed to “squeeze” the stone.

Table Spread

Term used to describe the width of the table facet, often expressed as a percentage of the total width of the stone.

Table Facet

This is the largest facet of a diamond. It is located on the top of the diamond. The table facet is sometimes referred to as the “face.”

Table

The top surface of a cut diamond or gemstone.

 

Symmetry

Symmetry is the arrangement of the facets and finished angles created by the diamond cutter. Excellent symmetry of a well-cut and well-proportioned diamond can have a great effect on the diamond’s brilliance and fire. Grading reports will often state the diamond’s symmetry in terms Excellent, Very good, Good, Fair, or Poor.

Step Cut

With rows of facets that resemble the steps of a staircase. The emerald cut and the baguette are examples of the step cut.

Scintillation

1. Sparkle: The appearance, or extent, of spots of light seen in a polished diamond when it is viewed face-up that flash as the diamond, observer, or light source moves.

2. Pattern: The relative size, arrangement, and contrast of bright and dark areas that result from the internal and external reflections seen in a polished diamond when it is viewed face-up while that diamond is still or moving.

Rough

Uncut diamonds or gemstones.

Refraction

The bending of light rays as they pass through a diamond or gemstone.

Radiant Cut

A rectangular or square shaped diamond with step-cut and scissor-cut on the crown, and a brilliant-cut on the pavilion.

Proportion

The proportions of a diamond are very important, so that the maximum amount of light be reflected off and out of a stone. Proportion is the relationship between the angles of the facets of the crown and pavilion.

Prong Setting

The metal tip or bead that actually touches the stone and holds it into place. This setting usually consists of four or six claws that cradle the stone. Because this setting allows the maximum amount of light to enter a stone from all angles, it sometimes can make a diamond appear larger and more brilliant than its actual weight. This setting can also hold larger diamonds more securely.

Princess Cut

A square or sometimes rectangular-shaped modified brilliant-cut diamond.

Poor Cut

A poorly cut diamond can be either cut too deep or too shallow. A deep or shallow cut diamond will lose or leak light through the side or bottom. This results in less brilliance and value.

Polish

Indicates the care taken by the cutter in shaping and faceting the rough stone into a finished and polished diamond.

Point

Term meaning one-hundredth of a carat approximately the size of one-half a grain of sand. 100 points equates to 1 carat. 

Platinum

A non-corrosive silver white metal, which is heavy and has a high tensile strength.

Pinpoint

An inclusion within a diamond. A gathering of pinpoints is called a “cluster” or “cloud.” A cloud or cluster can appear as a hazy area in the diamond, a pinpoint appears as a dot.

Pear Shape

Any stone whose girdle outline resembles a pear shape. Ideally cut pear shapes have 58 facets.

Pavilion

Bottom portion of the stone, under the girdle, measuring to the culet. It is the area below the girdle consisting of 23 facets in the round-brilliant-cut diamond.

Pave

A type of setting where a number of small stones are set together usually by small prongs.

Natural

A diamond characteristic that is part of the surface of a polished diamond that was not cut or polished during the cutting process.

Milligrain

A decorating style creating a fine bead like effect around the edge of a metal collet; popular in the Edwardian and Belle Époque periods

Mele

Small, usually round diamonds less than .18 carats in size.

Mixed-Cut

This cut has both step-cut and brilliant-cut facets. Mixed cuts combine the beauty of the emerald cut with the sparkle of the brilliant cut.

Marquise Shape

A double-pointed, boat-shaped stone that is long and thin with gently curved sides coming to a point on either end. Marquise is part of the brilliant-cut family; ideally cut it has 58 facets.

Luster

The hue and depth of reflection from pearls, opals or other opaque stones.

Loupe

Any small magnifying glass mounted for hand use, to hold up to the eye socket or attach to a pair of glasses.

Inclusion

“Internal characteristics” apparent to a trained or professional eye at 10x magnification. Inclusions can be bubbles, crystals, carbon spots, feathers, clouds, pinpoints, or other impurities, or even cracks and abrasions. They are what make a diamond so unique, as a fingerprint does for a person.

Hearts and Arrows

Heart and arrows cut diamonds are precision cut variations of the traditional 57 faceted round brilliant cut. They are cut to “ideal proportions” with superior optical symmetry, polish and a specific faceting pattern. When all these factors are in harmony the result is a repeatable, near perfect pattern of eight symmetrical arrows in the face up position called ‘crown’ and eight symmetrical hearts when viewed in the table down position, called ‘pavilion’. The diagram below depicts a symmetrical hearts & arrows cut.

      Pavilion View                Crown View

Growth or Grain Lines

These can be considered internal flaws, and can often be seen only by rotating the diamond very slowly. They can appear and disappear almost instantaneously. They appear as small lines or planes within the diamond.

Girdle

The outer edge of a cut stone, the dividing line between the crown and the pavilion. Sometimes the girdle is polished and sometimes it is unpolished. Ideally the width of the girdle should be even and proportional to the cut of the stone.

Fluorescence

Diamond fluorescence, in its most simple form, is the effect that ultraviolet (UV) light has on a diamond. When you stand under a blue light or ultraviolet light, sometimes you can see your whites get brighter or your teeth appear to glow. This is the same effect the diamond has under the UV rays. Fluorescence is the visible light that a diamond emits when it is exposed to the UV rays.

Fire

The appearance, or extent, of spots of light dispersed into spectral colors seen in a polished diamond when it is viewed face-up.

Finish

Describes the exterior of the diamond. If a diamond is well polished, it has a very good finish. Re-polishing a diamond can sometimes enhance its color appearance.

Filigree

To apply thread-like wire and decorate into a lace, lattice, or cobweb work.

Feather

A type of inclusion or flaw within a diamond resembling a crack or fissure.

Fracture Filling

A process that injects a substance into a diamond to hide inclusions. The filling may be dislodged if extreme heat is applied to the diamond.

Fancy Cut

Any diamond cut other than round such as baguette, emerald, pear, marquise, square, oval, heart, etc.

Facet

A flat polished surface of a diamond or gemstone. This style of cutting gives the stone many small faces at varying angles to one another. The placement, angle and shape of each facet are carefully planned and executed to show the stone’s inherent beauty, fire, color, and brilliance to the fullest advantage.

Emerald Shape

A rectangular or square-shaped cut-cornered diamond.

Durability

The characteristic of a polished diamond that accounts for the risk of damage inherent in its proportions (i.e., the risk of chipping in diamonds with extremely thin girdles).

Dispersion

When light enters a diamond it reflects off the facets and the angles cut into the stone. This distribution of light is known as dispersion, or the display of the spectral colors.

DWT

Abbreviation for pennyweight

Diamond Grading Reports

There are many recognized gemological laboratories that can grade your diamond for a fee. The most well known is the GIA, Gemological Institute of America.

Diamond

A diamond is the hardest known natural substance. It is crystallized carbon. Diamonds are mined in their rough form and then, cut and polished to reveal their brilliance.

Deep Cut

When a diamond is cut too deep, it will lose or leak light through the side or bottom. This results in less brilliance and value.

Cutting Style

Cutting styles are different than diamond shapes. The simplest and most common way to explain cutting style is to categorize it into the following three basic types: Step-cut, Brilliant-cut and Mixed-cut.

Cut

Cut is not the same as shape; shape is a matter of personal preference, but the quality of the cut determines whether light will be properly reflected through the diamond and the color properly dispersed. An ideal cut diamond is cut to precise calculated proportions to produce the maximum brilliance and symmetry.  Diamonds that adhere to these precise proportions are truly a rare find.

Cushion Cut

The Cushion Cut diamond has been around since the mid 18th century and was the most common cut until the early 20th century. This cut combines a square cut with rounded corners thereby resembling a cushion.

Culet

 The bottom point of the diamond. It may be polished in some stones. Sometimes, a cutter may choose to make the culet a surface instead of a point.

Crown

 The upper portion or the top of a diamond. As the diamond catches the light, the job of the crown is to split the light entering the diamond into white light, which gives the stone its brilliance, and colored light, which gives it fire, or dispersion.

Color

Diamonds are graded on a color scale established by the Gemological Institute of America (GIA). A diamond’s color ranges from “D” which is no color, to Z, which is a light yellow. The closer a diamond comes to being colorless, the more valuable it is.  A diamond with “D” color on the color grade has perfect color.  When deciding on the color of your diamond, you must take into consideration the metal in which the diamond will be set in (i.e. platinum, yellow gold). If your diamond will be set in platinum, we recommend the colors “D-F,” however, if the setting you have chosen is yellow gold, we would recommend choosing a diamond ranging in color from “G-I.”  Selecting a diamond to compliment the chosen metal will enhance the overall appearance of your diamond in its setting.

Cluster Setting

This setting surrounds a larger center stone with several smaller stones. It is designed to create a beautiful larger ring from many smaller stones.

Clarity

The clarity of a diamond is determined by the visibility of any flaws in or on the surface of a diamond.  Almost all diamonds contain naturally occurring internal characteristics called inclusions. The size, nature, location and number of inclusions determine a diamonds clarity grade and affects the value of a diamond; the fewer inclusions in a diamond the greater its value.

Channel Setting

A popular choice for wedding and anniversary bands, a channel setting will set the stones right next to each other with no metal separating them.

Certification or Diamond Grading Report

A diamond’s certificate or grading report is an assessment of a gemstone’s identity and quality characteristics such as color, clarity, carat weight, polish and symmetry and sometimes cut from an independent laboratory. GIA, AGS, EGL, and IGI are some of the most well-known and respected laboratories throughout the world.

Carat

A unit of measure of weight of diamonds and gemstones. One carat can also be divided into 100 “points.” A .50-carat stone is the same as a 50-point or 1/2-carat stone. A .25-carat stone is the same as a 25-point or ¼-carat stone.

Cabochon

A cutting style that produces a smooth surface with no facets.

Brilliant Cut

This cutting style is most often used for diamonds, consisting of 58 facets, also known as “modern cut” or “full cut.” Brilliant cuts are scientifically found to reflect the most light from within the stone compared to most other cuts.

Brightness

The appearance, or extent, of internal and external reflections of “white” light seen in a polished diamond when it is viewed face-up.

Brilliance

The radiation, liveliness or sparkle emitted by a stone when light is reflected from the surface and from the total internal reflection of light.

Blemishes

Scratches or marks on the external area of a stone.

Bezel

A metal rim that holds a stone and completely surrounds it. Bezels can be molded into any shape to accommodate the shape of the stone.

Baguette

A rectangular-shaped stone with rows of step-like facets. A tapered baguette is one with two long sides that taper inward.

AGS

The American Gem Society is a trade association of retail jewelers, independent appraisers, suppliers, and selective industry members, which was founded in 1934 by Robert M. Shipley, who also founded the Gemological Institute of America.

Laser Inscribed

DND Jewelers wants you to feel secure about the identity of your diamond forever. For your protection we can have your diamond laser inscribed with its very own security identification number, personal message, wedding date, birth date or even a company logo so that you can forever identify your diamond as your own.

Laser Inscription 2_0

The laser inscription process involves using the precise heat of a fine laser beam to write on the outside perimeter of a diamond known as the girdle. The laser inscription is microscopic, invisible to the naked eye and can only be seen with a Jeweler’s 10x loupe.  Laser inscription is permanent and does not change the color grade or clarity grade of a diamond.

Laser inscription eliminates the risk associated with fraudulent activity and the accidental switching of your diamond.  You will be able to identify your diamond and be certain that the diamond you left with a jeweler for setting or repairs is the same one that is returned to you.  In addition to providing you with peace of mind, laser inscribed diamonds are preferred by insurance companies and many insurance companies offer discounts because of the extra security measure.

Please feel free to contact us if you have any questions.